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Global Warming: Causes and Effects (bibliography)

Johansen, Bruce. "Arctic Heat Wave." Progressive Oct. 2001: 18+

Discusses unusually hot weather in areas of northern Canada and Alaska. Many observed effects of global warming are discussed including "the drunken forest" and loss of coastline. Effects on animals are also discussed. The article documents the local and personal consequences of global warming and will be good for grabbing attention in the introduction.


United States. Department of State. U.S.Climate Action Report 2002. Washington:      GPO, 2002.

An exhaustive report from the U.S. government report produced for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It presents national characteristics of the U.S. that play a role in climate change. The report lists greenhouse gas emissions, why the emissions are increasing and then covers what the U.S. is doing to limit emissions. The report also discusses what the U.S. sees as the effects of global warming and how it plans to deal with the effects. Appendix A contains a wealth of emission data.


Putten, Mark Van. "Climate Change Hits Home." National Wildlife Feb. 2002: 7

Reports on the global phenomenon of warming temperatures and extreme climate changes. Provides accounts of emissions of greenhouse gases, countries affected by the climate changes and the effects of the climate change on wildlife. Good report on a butterfly whose range has migrated.


Peñuelas, Josep; Filella, Comas Iolanda and E. Per. "Changed Plant and Animal Life      Cycles From 1952 to 2000 in the Mediterranean region." Global Change Biology      June 2002: 531+

The article discusses the long-term study of changed plant and animal cycles in and around the Mediterranean town of Cardedeu in northeast Spain. Temperature change data is presented and then a discussion of how this change has affected wildlife in the study area. Good source for introduction.


Mazza, Patrick and Rhys Roth. "Global warming is here!" Earth Island Journal 14.1 (fall      1999): 14

Provides details on global warming. Details the cost of damage by extreme weather in 1998. Discusses the findings of a study by the National Science Foundation based on natural indicators. The effects on middle and lower latitude mountain glaciers, implications on the polar regions and impact on plants and animals are also discussed. Startling data on bird population along the northwest coast.


Key dates in the history of global warming. Scientec Matrix. 10 Dec. 2002      

This site provides a historical time line of global warming including the first theories on the topic.


United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Climate Assessment      For 2001. 15 Jan 2002. 10 Dec. 2002.

PDF publication that looks at extremely detailed global climate data for 2001 and then compares that data do past data. This is an outstanding and detailed orientated publication.


Mazza, Patrick and Rhys Roth. "Global warming is here!" Earth Island Journal 14.1 (fall      1999): 14

This article contains many documented effects of global warming.


Levitus, Sydney. "Anthropogenic Warming of Earth's Climate System." Science      292.5515 (2001): 267-270.

Compares the temporal variability of the heat content of the world ocean of the global atmosphere, and of components of Earth's cryosphere during the latter half of the 20th century. Estimated increase of observed global ocean heat contents between the 1950s and 1990s; Increase of anthropogenic gases in Earth's atmosphere. Good article for ocean warming.


Mann, Michael E., Raymond S. Bradley and Malcolm K. Hughes. "Northern Hemisphere      Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and      Limitations." American Geophysical Union Geophysical Research Letters. 26      (1999): 759-762.

An extensive article that details the author's studies of annual climate reconstructions based on tree rings, sediments, ice cores, and corals. They also point out the limitations of these reconstructions. They conclude that even with the limitations and uncertainties of the climate reconstructions the data shows that the recent global warming can be directly tied to the impact of man on the environment. The research helped to prompt a shift in the position of the United Nations International Panel on Climate Change, which reported last year that humans were responsible for most of the global warming over the past century. Data is impressive and includes a graph that was dubbed ""the hockey stick" because it showed a sharp upward swing in temperatures that directly correlated to greenhouse gas emissions.


Cowen, Robert. "One Large, Overlooked Factor in Global Warming: Tropical Forest      Fires." Christian Science Monitor 7 Nov. 2002, 14

An article that documents the carbon dioxide released by forest fires especially those fires in tropical areas. Gives 1998 Southeast Asia fire data.


Harmon, Mark, William Ferrell and Jerry Franklin. "Effects on Carbon Storage of      Conversion of Old-growth Forests to Young Forests." Science 247.1 (Feb 1990):      699-702.

The article is an extremely technical description a study of old-growth forests ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It indicates my belief old-growth forests are more efficient at removing carbon dioxide then managed forests of other biomass.


Unknown 1. "Logging Old Forests Global Warming Risk." Pulp & Paper Feb. 1998: 25

This article relates the findings of the study undertaken by the Oregon State University stating that the United States Northwest's old growth forests may have the ability to store more carbon than previously thought. The author is unknown and the original study was no where to be found.


Urquhart, Gerald, Walter Chomentowski, David Skole, and Chris Barber. Tropical      Deforestation NASA Earth Observatory Web Site. 10 Dec. 2002      

This site gives a good general overview of tropical deforestation and provides some nice satellite pictures.


United Nations Environmental Program. 10 Dec. 2002      

This page contains a global carbon dioxide emission projection chart.


Weller, Gunter, Patricia Anderson and Bronwen Wang. "The Potential Consequences of      Climate Variability and Change Alaska." Report for the U.S. Global Change      Research Program Dec. 1999.

This report produced by the University of Alaska Fairbanks studies the effects an potential effects of climate change. Good resource for climate change since Alaska has been heavily impacted.


Anderson, Patricia and Gunter Weller. "Assessing the Consequences of Climate      Change for Alaska and the Bering Sea Region Proceedings of a Workshop at the      University of Alaska." Fairbanks Center for Global Change and Arctic System      Research University of Alaska Fairbanks      Oct. 1998

The effects of climate change observed in Alaska including unprecedented insect outbreaks, increased fire frequency and intensity, and the effects of permafrost thawing in and the effects of the lengthened growing season are discussed.


Witze, Alexandra. "Antarctic Ice Shelf Had Been Around for at Least 9,000 Years." The      Dallas Morning News 8 Dec 2002: 7

The Antarctic ice shelf Larsen B that collapsed earlier in the year had been around for at least 9,000 years scientists report.


Bortnick, Barry. "Antarctic Ice-shelf Collapse Signals Warming, Some Cite Pollution."      The Gazette 4 Apr. 2002: 17

Scientists discuss the Antarctic ice shelf Larsen B that collapsed earlier in the year and what it means.


Easterling D., J. Evans, P. Groisman, T. Karl, K. Kunkel and P. Ambenje. "Observed      Variability and Trends in Extreme Climate Events: A Brief Review Bulletin."      Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 1 Mar. 2000.

Variations and trends in extreme climate events have only recently received much attention. Are these events increasing? The answer is difficult to determine due to poor data and lack of consistent standards for reporting extreme weather. Some conclusions can be drawn form the data and some extreme weather events may be increasing slightly.


Unknown 2. "Global Warming and Nature." National Wildlife 40.5 (2002): 12

Reports on the effects of global warming to the planet Earth, which include earlier arrival of spring, changes to the distribution of animals, Intensification of warming-induced coral bleaching.


Pennisi, Elizabeth. "Coral Gets Dismal Report Card." Science Now 30 Aug. 2002: 3

This article reports on the warnings issued by marine biologists regarding the deterioration of coral reefs. Effect of global warming on coral reefs; Other factors responsible for the decay of coral reefs; Significance of the project Reef Check to the marine habitats.


Browne, Anthony. "Death of Ocean Organisms May be Hitting Fish Stocks." The Times      21 Aug. 2002 Home News: 10

This article discussed global warming that is being accelerated by a huge decline of tiny organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that are dying because of global warming. This is important.


Unknown 3. "Whitecaps and Global Warming." Popular Mechanics Sep. 2001: 26

Focuses on the significance of studying whitecaps to global warming models.


Albritton, Daniel, Myles Allen, Alfons Baede, John Church, Ulrich Cubasch, Dai Xiaosu,      Ding Yihui, Dieter Ehhalt, Christopher Folland, Filippo Giorgi, Jonathan Gregory,      David Griggs, Jim Haywood, Bruce Hewitson, John Houghton, Joanna House,      Michael Hulme, Ivar Isaksen, Victor J. Jaramillo, Achuthan Jayaraman, Catherine      Johnson, Fortunat Joos, Sylvie Joussaume, Thomas Karl, David Karoly, Haroon      Kheshgi, Corrine Quéré, Kathy Maskell, Luis Mata, Bryant McAvaney, Mack      McFarland, Linda Mearns, Gerald Meehl, L. Gylvan Meira-Filho, Valentin      Meleshko, John Mitchell, Berrien Moore, Richard Mugara, Maria Noguer,      Buruhani Nyenzi, Michael Oppenheimer, Joyce Penner, Steven Pollonais,      Michael Prather, Colin Prentice, Venkatchala Ramaswamy, Armando Ramirez-      Rojas, Sarah Raper, Jim Salinger, Robert Scholes, Susan Solomon, Thomas      Stocker, John Stone, Ronald Stouffer, Kevin Trenberth, Ming-Xing Wang, Robert      Watson, Kok Yap and John Zillman. "A Report of Working Group I of the      Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." Intergovernmental Panel on      Climate Change (IPCC) 20 Jan. 2001.

This report provides a wealth of climate change projections from the most well known computer model. Plenty of charts and may different greenhouse gas levels are looked at.


Potential Impact of Sea Level Rise on Bangladesh. United Nations Environment      Program web site. 10 Dec. 2002

This page has an excellent map and data on how global warming sea levels may affect Bangladesh.


Chalko, Tom. "Can Earth explode as a result of Global Warming?" NU Journal of      Discovery 3 (May 2001): 21

This interesting article discusses the core of the Earth and new evidence that the Earth's core is actually a nuclear reactor. The core may possibly explode if we don't immediately stop global warming. This is an extremely technical document from an expert in the field.


Byfield, Mike. "Kyoto - The Science and the Hype." Report / Newsmagazine 4 Nov.      2002, National Edition: 42

Profiles Bjorn Lomborg, author of 'The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the State of the Real World.' Idea of Lomborg that exaggeration of the problem of global warming could be harmful to the environment; Admission of Lomborg that he is not an environmental scientist, but a statistician; Conclusion of Lomborg that there is a high degree of uncertainty about forecasts of climate change.


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